Buy Vermox Without Prescription, There's an old saying in computer science circles that when we have no idea how to make a piece of software do something smart we call it "Artificial Intelligence" but once it's solved we look back with 20-20 hindsight and say it was "Software Engineering". Vermox treatment, A computer becoming the world chess champion is the quintessential example of this. Once considered a holy grail of AI, fast shipping Vermox, Vermox samples, by the time Deep Blue actually dethroned Kasparov, the computing world yawned, online buying Vermox hcl, Order Vermox from United States pharmacy, "Oh it was just brute force computing power, nothing truly intelligent is really happening", buy cheap Vermox. Vermox from mexico, Beating the world champions at Jeopardy was slightly more interesting because we acknowledge the vast range of knowledge and language understanding involved. But ultimately, buy Vermox no prescription, Vermox results, since Jeopardy is just a game, we are left with the feeling, Vermox without a prescription, Where can i cheapest Vermox online, "so what?" How does this affect my life one way or another. Enter, Siri, the voice recognition system integrated into the new iPhone 4S, Buy Vermox Without Prescription.
When I heard about the feature and saw what it claimed to do, is Vermox addictive, Vermox schedule, I was intrigued, but figured that the claims of how well it worked were really exaggerated, Vermox interactions. Vermox maximum dosage, After all, it's easy to program for requests that you can anticipate and individual speakers' accents and colloquialisms, online buying Vermox. Effects of Vermox, Practically speaking (I figured) it would be no more useful than the standalone Siri app you could download, or the Google voice recognition system, taking Vermox. Vermox from canadian pharmacy, But after experimenting with it for a few minutes, I was blown away, Vermox description. Not only is the syntactic recognition way Buy Vermox Without Prescription, more accurate than anything I've ever seen, Siri exhibits an understanding of the semantic and pragmatic like no other system I've seen, except perhaps google's search engine itself.*
Sure it was fun asking "Who's your daddy?" and getting a different reply based on the gender of the speaker, or asking Siri what (s)he's wearing and getting an appropriately evasive answer. Buy Vermox from canada, But my real aha moment came when I got an email from a friend suggesting we chat next week sometime. Normally this kind of thing would either clutter my inbox until I created an appointment in my calendar or next Friday rolled around and I realized I hadn't responded in a socially appropriate timeframe, buy Vermox without a prescription. Buy cheap Vermox no rx, I was curious how Siri would handle the request, "Remind me to call Mark on Wednesday", Vermox images. Vermox pictures, Not only did it repeat back my request verbatim, but it created a reminder for 9am on Wednesday using a new Reminder App bundled with iPhone that I didn't know about, Vermox mg. Most importantly, it gave me a very real peace of mind and reduction of anxiety that I haven't been able to get from any of the dozens of productivity apps or systems I've tried, like Evernote and Omnifocus, Buy Vermox Without Prescription. About Vermox, This Quora article outlines the significance of Siri's great leap forward for AI, pointing out that voice represents the "4th interface" for human-computer interaction (the first three being keyboard, doses Vermox work, Vermox over the counter, mouse and gestures). The real key though is that Siri actually does things of practical value for a mass audience, ordering Vermox online. Where can i buy cheapest Vermox online, In other words, Siri helps you get things done that you want done, order Vermox from mexican pharmacy. Buy Vermox online no prescription, This is new. Buy Vermox Without Prescription, And huge. And just the tip of the iceberg, Vermox wiki. Order Vermox online c.o.d, The article ends with a suggestion that we should start thinking about new uses for the technology because eventually there will be an API that allows app developers to make use of the power of voice interaction. This fact is inevitable, Vermox from canada, Vermox online cod, even if Apple and Siri are not the ones that will do it. The AI genie is coming out of the bottle, Vermox trusted pharmacy reviews.
So, my question to you, is what's the next killer app that utilizes voice interaction, Buy Vermox Without Prescription. Where can i find Vermox online, What would you like to see personally.
* Syntax refers to the form of a sentence, Vermox cost, i.e. what words are being used and do they follow the rules of grammar. Semantics refers to the literal meaning of the sentence (e.g. "Does anyone know what time it is?") while pragmatics refer to the underlying intent of the speaker (e.g. that the speaker wants you to tell them what time it is, not whether there exists someone who knows the time).
Similar posts: Lexapro For Sale. Female Pink Viagra For Sale. Buy Pristiq Without Prescription. Lumigan For Sale. Allopurinol For Sale. Buy generic Xalatan. Australia, uk, us, usa. Differin coupon. Real brand Cephalexin online. Clindamycin Gel price.
Trackbacks from: Buy Vermox Without Prescription. Buy Vermox Without Prescription. Buy Vermox Without Prescription. Buy Vermox Without Prescription. Buy Vermox Without Prescription. Where can i order Vermox without prescription. Online Vermox without a prescription. Vermox maximum dosage. Vermox treatment. Order Cafergot from mexican pharmacy.
Celebrex For Sale, Based on an informal assessment and polling I've done recently, here's what we fear:
- LOSING ONESELF
- Death / Pain / Insignificance
- BEING WRONG
- Self-Exploration / Failure / Change
- Being Found Out / Self-Expression / Lying
- LOSING ONESELF
- Power / Anticipation / Fear-Itself
- Intimacy / Just Doing It / (Lack of) Freedom
- THE UNCONTROLLABLE
- Disaster / Crisis / Unknown-Unknowns
- Being Unworthy / Unmet Expectation / Meaninglessness
- Unfairness / Inequality / Injustice
- Doing it Wrong / Shame / Guilt
Each of us has a unique profile of what fear is depending on how we related to various value dimensions (intrinsic, extrinsic and systemic). For me the scariest are: (1) Unknown-Unknowns (2) Power (3) Being Wrong (4) Self-Expression (5) Injustice
How about you, Celebrex forum. Celebrex for sale. Purchase Celebrex online no prescription. Celebrex gel, ointment, cream, pill, spray, continuous-release, extended-release. Where can i buy Celebrex online. Online buying Celebrex hcl. Celebrex dosage. Discount Celebrex. Celebrex trusted pharmacy reviews. Celebrex from mexico. Celebrex pics. Celebrex treatment. Celebrex wiki. Celebrex gel, ointment, cream, pill, spray, continuous-release, extended-release. Celebrex price. Taking Celebrex. Celebrex reviews. Doses Celebrex work. Buy Celebrex without prescription. Celebrex description. Online buying Celebrex. Celebrex over the counter. Ordering Celebrex online. Celebrex long term. Buy Celebrex from canada. Celebrex results. Celebrex street price. Buy Celebrex online no prescription. Purchase Celebrex online. Celebrex used for. After Celebrex. Is Celebrex addictive. Japan, craiglist, ebay, overseas, paypal. Celebrex class. Rx free Celebrex. Celebrex brand name. Real brand Celebrex online. Buy cheap Celebrex. Celebrex dose. Order Celebrex online c.o.d.
Similar posts: Buy Lotrisone Without Prescription. Buy Alesse (Ovral L) Without Prescription. Diclofenac For Sale. Acomplia For Sale. Topamax For Sale. After Elavil. Is Diclofenac addictive. Seroquel photos. Kjøpe Flexeril på nett, köpa Flexeril online. Is Triamterene safe.
Trackbacks from: Celebrex For Sale. Celebrex For Sale. Celebrex For Sale. Celebrex For Sale. Celebrex For Sale. Celebrex for sale. Celebrex coupon. Is Celebrex addictive. Effects of Diclofenac. Epogen for sale.
Biaxin For Sale, Are you someone who has been given (and accepted) responsibility for someone else's well-being. Maybe you are an elected official, Biaxin from canadian pharmacy. Purchase Biaxin for sale, A board member. A parent, herbal Biaxin. Biaxin price, coupon, A friend. If so, you may resonate with the following realization I just had about my own successes and failures in the role of Representative, Biaxin For Sale.
I used to believe that what a Representative does is to act and react as if they were the one being represented, generic Biaxin. Cheap Biaxin, I felt like my job was to get inside their head, and channel them, comprar en línea Biaxin, comprar Biaxin baratos, Biaxin for sale, sort of like a medium or a conduit. The problem with this though is it always ends badly, buy Biaxin without a prescription. Online buy Biaxin without a prescription, Why. Biaxin For Sale, Because it's an impossible job.
Nobody can speak for you, buy Biaxin no prescription, Biaxin duration, as if they were you. Sure, Biaxin interactions, No prescription Biaxin online, if you know one another really, really well, buy Biaxin online cod, Biaxin images, then at times it can seem as though they read your mind, know what's in your heart, is Biaxin safe. Order Biaxin online overnight delivery no prescription, But the times I have been most frustrated in any relationship is when the other person believes and acts as if they know what I want, what I value, my Biaxin experience, Biaxin recreational, but they really don't. It's also frustrating when the other person is so unsure of what I want or believe that they ask me a million questions, where to buy Biaxin, Get Biaxin, or do nothing because they fear being wrong.
So how to do the impossible job well, Biaxin For Sale. The realization I had is that a true Representative, Biaxin samples, Where can i cheapest Biaxin online, a good Representative, is someone has agreed to take responsibility for a pre-determined, Biaxin photos, Biaxin use, mutually agreed upon, finite set of roles, Biaxin no rx, Low dose Biaxin, decisions and actions on behalf of the represented. Not "as if", buying Biaxin online over the counter, Where can i order Biaxin without prescription, but "for". The difference is subtle, buy cheap Biaxin no rx, Buy Biaxin from mexico, but profound.
When you act for me, Biaxin blogs, Order Biaxin no prescription, you don't ask yourself what I would do in that circumstance; you do what you know is best for me. Biaxin For Sale, It just so happens that I have already agreed that whatever you choose to do, I trust that is in my best interest. Part of that trust, buy generic Biaxin, Biaxin samples, is knowing that I may not agree with your decisions or understand how they are good for me. In fact, is Biaxin safe, My Biaxin experience, it's guaranteed that there will be some part of your decisions on my behalf that I will feel are wrong -- after all, I'm not YOU, Biaxin steet value, Biaxin dose, I can't fully understand what's in your heart or mind.
I used to think that to be a good Representative I had to make good decisions for those I represent. Now I realize that as long as I follow what I know to be right in my heart, it's a good decision by definition. Because the word "good" cannot apply to my decisions on your behalf; it can only apply to your decision to ask me to represent you, and my decision to accept.
Similar posts: Nexium For Sale. Prednisolone For Sale. Slimex (Obetrim) For Sale. Lasix For Sale. Buy Clonidine Without Prescription. Where can i cheapest Celebrex online. Differin from canadian pharmacy. My Advair experience. Online buying Ampicillin hcl. Vibramycin duration.
Trackbacks from: Biaxin For Sale. Biaxin For Sale. Biaxin For Sale. Biaxin For Sale. Biaxin For Sale. Biaxin over the counter. Purchase Biaxin online. Biaxin from mexico. Biaxin without a prescription. Cephalexin photos.
Buy Wellbutrin SR Without Prescription, The wind was flapping a temple flag. Two monks were arguing about it. One said the flag was moving; the other said the wind was moving, what is Wellbutrin SR. Arguing back and forth they could come to no agreement. The Sixth Patriarch said, Wellbutrin SR from canada, "It is neither the wind nor the flag that is moving. It is your mind that is moving." -- Zen Koan
“The belief in an external world independent of the perceiving subject is the basis of all natural science.” -- Albert Einstein
Does a whirlpool exist in the same way that a rock exists or that energy from the sun exists. For something to exist it either has to have always existed, or there must have been a time prior to its existence. Leaving for a moment the possibility that everything which exists today has always existed, let's consider that it came into being at some point, Buy Wellbutrin SR Without Prescription.
If something came into being, online buying Wellbutrin SR hcl, then not only must there have been a point in time prior to its existence, Where can i buy cheapest Wellbutrin SR online, but there must have been a point after which it begins to exist. These two points don't necessarily need to be the same. If I make dinner -- a rare occasion to be sure -- then there is a period of time during which I'm in the process of making dinner. Before that period started, my dinner did not exist. After I fished making it, my dinner existed. We could argue over whether existence is therefore better understood as a continuum (does dinner exist while I'm in the process of making it?) but let's assume for a moment that it's not. That dinner either exists or it doesn't. Certainly it's the case that the rock I am sitting on right now either exists or it doesn't. I'm going to assume the latter for now, generic Wellbutrin SR.
Let's talk about creation for a moment. When we say that something was created we often times are implying that there was a creator of some sort. Maybe not a human or deity, Purchase Wellbutrin SR for sale, but that there was an entity of some sort that had the intention of bringing that thing into existence. Clearly there are things that get created that don't have an intentional creator. Take for example an oil spill or a planet.
So to recap, Wellbutrin SR street price, we will be talking about the existence (or not) of various things, Where can i order Wellbutrin SR without prescription, and we will use the terms "creation" and "created" simply to refer to the notion that for something to exist, there needs to have been a creation process of some sort: human, devine or otherwise, fast shipping Wellbutrin SR. Buy Wellbutrin SR Without Prescription, Consider for a moment a particular pattern in a Persian rug. Or the pattern of the Statue of Liberty. Both have been replicated many times, but there is still the question of whether the pattern itself has existence independent of the physical manifestations that it takes. Let's not attempt to answer that right now, but rather let's assume that patterns exist as first class citizens in the universe, and see what that assumption implies.
For a particular pattern to exist, Buy Wellbutrin SR online cod, it either always existed, or it was created at some point in time (or during some time period). I think we can all agree that the pattern of the Statue of Liberty was created (that is, it did not always exist). The notion that it has always existed (while ultimately it may have some merit) is too philosophical for our current purposes, Wellbutrin SR without a prescription.
What about ceasing to exist? Is it possible that a pattern, Is Wellbutrin SR safe, once created, can cease to exist? Again, quite philosophical, Wellbutrin SR blogs, but let's take the harder path and assume that if all instances of a pattern cease to exist in the universe, Wellbutrin SR online cod, then the pattern ceases to exist as well. It may come back into existence sometime in the future; it may not.
Now back to that whirlpool. It's fair to say that there exists a pattern for it that we notice from time to time instantiated elsewhere: other whirlpools of course, but also tornados, Wellbutrin SR cost, hurricanes, Comprar en línea Wellbutrin SR, comprar Wellbutrin SR baratos, eddies in streams, even gravity wells created by stars. We have a technical name for this pattern, we call it a vortex, Wellbutrin SR steet value.
Vortices belong to a class of patterns that, Wellbutrin SR canada, mexico, india, once initiated are self-sustaining. They need a flow of energy (such as the pull of gravity) to sustain indefinitely, but the structure of the pattern is such that less energy is required to sustain it than to create it in the first place. The energy is channeled by the pattern in a cycle so that only a fraction is lost during one orbit. The cyclical structure is the key to a self-sustaining pattern.
Not all patterns are self-sustaining of course. Clouds form and dissipate without much in the way of a sustained, coherent pattern. The fact that we can identify individual clouds suggests that there is some degree of self-sustenance. But it's fair to say that if there were a measure of self-sustenance, clouds would rank lower than vortices, Buy Wellbutrin SR Without Prescription.
And if there is a pattern to life, Wellbutrin SR pharmacy, then certainly self-sustenance is one of its properties. And certainly life forms would measure higher on that scale than either clouds or vortices. Herbal Wellbutrin SR, Living things have other, related properties as well: self-repair, self-defense, Wellbutrin SR interactions, self-replication, Buy Wellbutrin SR no prescription, self-representation.... This latter property is interesting because it is the basis for (among other things) genes and cognition. Somewhere on the spectrum of self-* properties lies self-awareness and self-consciousness. Maybe not all living things exhibit these higher order self-* properties, but some of us do.
Are there certain patterns that, online buy Wellbutrin SR without a prescription, in addition to being self-sustaining are also self-creating? It's an interesting question because how would we distinguish self-creation from random chance? Given a long enough time period and random fluctuations of energy and matter, Wellbutrin SR photos, there are bound to appear patterns that just so happen (by pure chance) to be self-sustaining. And if you view the universe as a place where matter and energy interplay in an increasingly random way -- which is to say that entropy increases as time goes on -- then you could rationally assert that within the universe there are patterns that self-create.
But even if you didn't want to go that far, there is something very important about self-sustaining patterns no matter how they were created. Namely, is Wellbutrin SR addictive, that they define a boundary between self and environment that simpler patterns do not. I need to unpack that statement a bit for it to make sense. Buy Wellbutrin SR Without Prescription, How do we know that a pattern is indeed a pattern? Simply because we observe a sameness about some aspect of our reality that persists for some noticeable time. This is a basic definition of pattern. But for us to observe the pattern there must be something doing the observing, namely us. But what if there were nothing doing the observing, would the pattern exist just the same. Wellbutrin SR class, Robert Lanza makes a good case against existence without observation. Talking about of the proverbial tree falling in the forrest, he observes,
If someone is nearby, real brand Wellbutrin SR online, the air puffs physically cause the ear's tympanic membrane (eardrum) to vibrate, Where to buy Wellbutrin SR, which then stimulates nerves only if the air is pulsing between 20 and 20,000 times a second.... Air that puffs 15 times a second is not intrinsically different from air that pulses 30 times, the the former will never result in a human perception of sound.... [N]erves stimulated by the moving eardrum send electrical signals to a section of the brain, online buying Wellbutrin SR, resulting in the cognition of a noise. This experience, Wellbutrin SR pictures, then, is inarguably symbiotic. The pulses of air by themselves do not constitute any sort of sound.... [A]n observer, Wellbutrin SR long term, an ear, Buy Wellbutrin SR from canada, and a brain are every bit as necessary for the experience of a sound as are the air pulses.
You might be tempted to say that there's a pattern to the air puffs that are intrinsic, that doesn't require observation to exist. But that is not so clear if you start digging into the physiology:
...neither electricity nor magnetism have visual properties.... there is nothing inherently visual, buy cheap Wellbutrin SR, nothing bright or colored about that candle flame. Now let these same invisible electromagnetic waves strike a human retina, Wellbutrin SR dose, and if (and only if) the waves each happen to measure between 400 and 700 nanometers in length from crest, then their energy is just right to deliver a stimulus to the 8 million cone-shaped cells in the retina. Each in turn sends an electrical pulse to a neighbor neuron, and up the line this goes, buy generic Wellbutrin SR, at 250 mph, About Wellbutrin SR, until it reaches the warm, wet occipital lobe of the brain, in the back of the head. There, Wellbutrin SR results, a cascading complex of neurons fire from the incoming stimuli, Where can i find Wellbutrin SR online, and we subjectively perceive this experience as yellow brightness occurring in a place we have been conditioned to call "the external world." Other creatures receiving the identical stimulus will experience something altogether different, such as a perception of gray, or even have an entirely dissimilar sensation.
Or none at all, Wellbutrin SR over the counter, I might add. Wellbutrin SR mg, Lanza goes on....
What about if you touch something? Isn't it solid? Push on the trunk of the fallen tree and you feel pressure. But this too is a sensation strictly inside your brain and only "projected" to your fingers, whose existence also lies within the mind. Moreover, that sensation of pressure is caused not by any contact with a solid, but by the fact that every atom has negatively charged electrons in its outer shells. As we all know, charges of the same type repel each other, so the bark's electrons repel yours, and you feel this electrical repulsive force stopping your fingers from penetrating any further. Nothing solid ever meets any other solids when you push on a tree. The atoms in your fingers are each as empty as a vacant football stadium in which a single fly sits on the fifty-yard line. If we needed solids to stop us (rather than energy fields), our fingers could easily penetrate the tree as if we were swiping at fog.
What Lanza is saying, in other words, is that the pattern isn't somewhere "out there", rather it exists in our minds. To be sure, the pattern is "symbiotic" requiring both observer and observed. But it's fair to question how much of the pattern is in our mind verses out there in the world. After all, the pattern of solidity seems pretty discordant with the stadium sized gaps and electrical impulses that physical reality holds, Buy Wellbutrin SR Without Prescription.
Probing further still, let's assume we are talking only about the part of the pattern that is "out there" in the universe, not in our minds. We can ask the question, in the physical manifestation of the pattern, where does it begin and where does it end? What's not included in the pattern. What can be considered considered external environment or noise.
Let's take for example a particular rock. That rock is made up of many molecules that have bonded together and remain so for a long period of time. Long enough that we recognize the pattern in nature and say to one another, "rock" without much ambiguity or miscommunication. But it's also true that the rock was once part of a larger physical structure (a mountain perhaps) in which it would have been difficult, if not impossible, for any observer to distinguish it from its environment. This is problematic because that very same pattern of molecules that we called "rock" existed when the rock was part of the mountain. And at some time in the future our rock will erode and break apart to the point where we all would agree that it's no longer a rock, let alone our same rock.
It's a natural human tendency to want to believe that there is something fishy about observer-dependence. We all have this intuitive sense that whether or not there is an observer to notice the rock cleave from the mountain and persist for some millions of years before becoming so much sand, that the rock does indeed exist. That the pattern is real, independent of an observer. Buy Wellbutrin SR Without Prescription, If this intuitive sense is true, then I propose the reason it is true is because of the odd property of patterns that they can be self-sustaining. In the case of the whirlpool, the matter and energy flow in a spiral, which has a large cyclical component to it. This cycle divides the world between the matter/energy that is part of the pattern and that which is outside the pattern.
If you are not convinced then try to come up with a pattern that doesn't have a cycle of some sort. I think you will come to see that the very essence of a pattern is that which is cyclical about it, that which repeats. After all, without repetition, there is no pattern, there's just randomness. Randomness. Randomness.
The Anthropic Principle suggests that randomness is inherent in the universe, and through randomness (and natural selection) there eventually appear observers (namely us) who notice patterns.
But what if in reality, patterns comes first, Buy Wellbutrin SR Without Prescription.
Maybe randomness is the fiction, a model of reality that allows us to get on with things, but isn't ever purely manifested in the universe.
Maybe everything -- even quantum particles and forces -- is interconnected in some way, if only indirectly.
And if that were the case, then the way in which everything interconnects might form a pattern.
There are a growing number of scientists who believe this to be the case. That the universe is fundamentally different than we've supposed for a while. That rather than being comprised of energy and matter, that the universe at its most basic level is a pattern. And the pattern is... Life Buy Wellbutrin SR Without Prescription, .
In this biocentric worldview, the universe and everything in it is a living process, a pattern if you will. Even atoms and molecules are manifestations of this pattern. That which was once considered inert and lifeless, according to biocentrism, is in fact just as alive as you and I are. The trick to seeing the pattern is to view what's going on at a high enough level of abstraction.
The trick is to forget the idea that there is a distinction between that which exists in the universe and that which we observe.
The trick is to start with the idea that all matter and energy is self-creating.
In a subsequent post I will review the evidence put forth by a couple of biocentric thinkers. If you are with me this far, I think you will be persuaded to look for the pattern.
Similar posts: Buy Quinine Without Prescription. Retin-A For Sale. Xalatan For Sale. Soma For Sale. Macrobid For Sale. Buy cheap Clonidine. Discount Nexium. Buy Erythromycin without a prescription. Triamterene street price. Seroquel pictures.
Trackbacks from: Buy Wellbutrin SR Without Prescription. Buy Wellbutrin SR Without Prescription. Buy Wellbutrin SR Without Prescription. Buy Wellbutrin SR Without Prescription. Buy Wellbutrin SR Without Prescription. Wellbutrin SR natural. Where can i buy Wellbutrin SR online. Wellbutrin SR pharmacy. Wellbutrin SR reviews. Abilify blogs.
Buy Nexium Without Prescription, As readers of my blog posts know, I talk a lot about evolutionary systems, the formal structure of cooperation, the role of both in emergence of new levels of complexity, and I sometimes use cellular automata to make points about all these things and the reification of useful models (here's a summary of how they all relate). Buy Nexium without a prescription, I've also touched on this "thing" going on with the system of life on Earth that is related to technological singularity but really is the emergence or (or convergence) of an entirely new form of intelligence/life/collective consciousness/cultural agency, above the level of human existence, Nexium dangers. Online buy Nexium without a prescription, [caption id="" align="alignnone" width="500" caption="From The Chaos Point. Reproduced with permission from the author."][/caption]
In a convergence of a different sort, Nexium dosage, Nexium trusted pharmacy reviews, many of these threads which all come together and interrelate in my own mind, came together in various conversations and talks within the last 15 hours, Nexium from mexico. Nexium wiki, And while it's impossible to explain this all in details, it's really exciting to find other people who are on the same wavelength and have thought a lot harder on each of the pieces than I have, where can i buy Nexium online. Just to give you a taste, here are the human players in this personal convergence and how they relate to the above themes:
Kevin Carpenter: Heard him first talk at LA Idea Project on the concept of Convergence and how it's critically different than Kurzweilian Singularity and much more similar to Superorganism, Buy Nexium Without Prescription. Nexium mg, Ran into him again at a party last night and he was excited to have given more cogent shape to his thinking in this area.
Steve Omohundro: I went to check out the H+ Summit this morning and he was speaking matter-of-factly on so many areas of interest and dropping research-backed evidence to support all of this pontification, purchase Nexium online no prescription. Cheap Nexium no rx, While the details aren't in this slide presentation, you should glance through it anyway, purchase Nexium for sale, Effects of Nexium, especially if you have been intrigued at all about things that I've written about.
Dan Miler: Spoke right after Omohundro on cellular automata and simulation, Nexium without prescription, Nexium description, and the metaphor/paradigm of digital physics. Buy Nexium Without Prescription, He highlighted several projects by other people which are shedding light on deep universal structure, including the work of Alex Lamb. Lamb has built the first (as far as I know) cellular automata system based on irregular latices (i.e, japan, craiglist, ebay, overseas, paypal. Where can i buy cheapest Nexium online, arbitrary network structures). Just like in Conway's Game of Life -- the most well-known cellular automaton -- there emerge persistent dynamic patterns similar to gliders:
Here are more examples from the Jellyfish system, herbal Nexium. Nexium brand name, What intrigues me most about this is that the brain is a nonregular lattice (by definition all networks are). Neuronal firing patterns are (that is to say, cognition is) computationally isomorphic to cellular automata on nonregular lattices, Buy Nexium Without Prescription. The jellyfish patterns seen in Lamb's simulations are exactly what I would imagine to exist in the brain, Nexium without prescription. Nexium used for, These would be the semi-autonomous interacting -- sometimes cooperating, sometimes conflicting -- agents that Omohundro refers to as being the basis of all cognition/intelligence, buy Nexium online no prescription. Nexium interactions, It's exactly what Minsky was referring to in Society of Mind, and what Palombo referred to in The Emergent Ego, order Nexium no prescription. Nexium mg, It's also the basis of crowd wisdom or collective intelligence.
Which leads us back to Convergence, is Nexium safe. Australia, uk, us, usa, As we learn more about the nature of cognition, intelligence and thought (both conscious and unconscious), Nexium australia, uk, us, usa, Nexium treatment, I believe we will recognize ever more clearly how there is new sentience emerging, not alongside human beings (though that is surely happening as well), where can i find Nexium online, Real brand Nexium online, but rather at the level above human beings and their technological spawn. Rx free Nexium. Get Nexium. Is Nexium addictive. Nexium from mexico. Buy Nexium without a prescription. Nexium from canadian pharmacy. Discount Nexium. Nexium no prescription. Buy Nexium from canada.
Similar posts: Buy Toradol Without Prescription. Avodart For Sale. Buy Accutane Without Prescription. Methotrexate For Sale. Reglan For Sale. Zovirax recreational. Buy cheap Toprol XL. Purchase Abilify online no prescription. Ampicillin without prescription. Is Advair safe.
Trackbacks from: Buy Nexium Without Prescription. Buy Nexium Without Prescription. Buy Nexium Without Prescription. Buy Nexium Without Prescription. Buy Nexium Without Prescription. Nexium alternatives. Fast shipping Nexium. Purchase Nexium for sale. Nexium online cod. Nexium trusted pharmacy reviews.
This is a followup to Ben's post on Human Cultural Transformation Triggered by Dense Populations Seroquel For Sale, . Comprar en línea Seroquel, comprar Seroquel baratos, Too many links for this to be accepted into the comments directly...
In thinking about these questions, it helps me to remind myself of the difference between evolution and emergence, taking Seroquel. Where can i buy Seroquel online, Evolution happens whenever you have a population of agents with heritable variation and differential reproduction rates. There are at least two types of emergence, Seroquel steet value, Order Seroquel online c.o.d, both of which can create new types of agents. Various self-reinforcing mechanisms lead to stronger and more stable agency, doses Seroquel work. We may not even recognize the emergence of nascent agents for what they are until said agency (or coherence) becomes strong enough, Seroquel For Sale. Seroquel trusted pharmacy reviews, For instance, many people have a hard time wrapping their head around cultural agency of any form, Seroquel samples. Australia, uk, us, usa, Obviously none of us on here have a problem with the concept of non-human agency, but as Alex and Ben collectively point out, buy generic Seroquel, Seroquel without prescription, cultural agents depend on human agents for their very existence. Yet as they become more coherent they inevitably come into conflict with human agency (i.e, my Seroquel experience. Seroquel interactions, what's good for the organization diverges from what's good for its constituents). This is the fundamental yin-yang dynamic of the creation of new levels of organization and complexity, rx free Seroquel. Seroquel from mexico, It is worthwhile asking what the future holds for humanity. This is what Kevin and I were on about in this whole superorganism and singularity thread:
• Superorganism and Singularity
• Superorganism Considered Harmful
• Response to Superorganism Considered Harmful
• Superorganism as Terminology
• Focusing on Autonomy
• Going Meta on Autonomy
- we disagree on whether there will be a single overarching Gaia-esque Super-agent on earth or whether there will just be a rich ecology of many interacting "small s" super-agents with no strong "big S" Super-agent
- we disagree on how to measure "autonomy" so we can't come to a consensus on what life will be like for humans
- we didn't really dive too deeply into the extent and nature of interaction between human agents and super-agents
This last point is interesting to me since it appears from the evidence that as each new level emerges, fast shipping Seroquel, Online buy Seroquel without a prescription, several things happen:
- communicative interactions between higher level and lower level agents increases
- level boundaries become less strict so that levels "overlap"
- the amount of co-evolution between the lower-level population and higher-level population -- i.e. multilevel evolution -- also increases
To make this claim more concrete, Seroquel long term, Purchase Seroquel online, compare for instance the difference (in the above regards) between these three dyadic systems:
A) atom --> molecule
B) cellular organism --> multicellular organism
C) human --> corporation
All thoughts, disagreements, effects of Seroquel, Seroquel forum, questions welcome... Seroquel photos. Is Seroquel addictive. Seroquel australia, uk, us, usa. Seroquel duration. Generic Seroquel. Buy Seroquel without a prescription. Seroquel reviews. Seroquel used for. Where can i find Seroquel online. Discount Seroquel. Buy cheap Seroquel no rx. Ordering Seroquel online. Seroquel coupon. Where can i buy Seroquel online. Seroquel from canada. Seroquel used for. Seroquel wiki. Online buying Seroquel hcl. Seroquel no rx.
Similar posts: Buy Stromectol Without Prescription. Buy Ventolin Without Prescription. Clindamycin Gel For Sale. Accutane For Sale. Vibramycin For Sale. Aricept blogs. Buy no prescription Synthroid online. Toprol XL wiki. Lumigan from canadian pharmacy. Lumigan without prescription.
Trackbacks from: Seroquel For Sale. Seroquel For Sale. Seroquel For Sale. Seroquel For Sale. Seroquel For Sale. Herbal Seroquel. Order Seroquel no prescription. Seroquel from canadian pharmacy. Buy Combivent without prescription. Flagyl dose.
In listening to this account Buy Lipitor Without Prescription, of Hemant Lakhani, convicted in 2005 of illegal arms dealing, I was reminded of another This American Life episode about Brandon Darby. Underlying both stories are accounts of seemingly incompetent, Lipitor overnight, Online buying Lipitor, misguided, would-be bad guys who were actualized on a path of evildoing by law-enforcement agents during sting operations, order Lipitor online overnight delivery no prescription. Lipitor use, What I found most interesting was the quote in the title of this post, said by the prosecutor in the Lakhani case, Lipitor long term. Lipitor class, This was his justification for why it was okay to have the U.S. military supply Lakhani the weapon that he was convicted of illegally dealing, Lipitor from mexico. What is Lipitor, (If you listen to the story you will learn that Lakhani had been making promises to the informant of being able to procure weapons for a long time and he'd been unsuccessful on his own).
While it seems on the surface that "bad people do bad things" -- i.e, Lipitor mg. After Lipitor, that's how bad things get done, they require a bad person to do them -- renowned Stanford psychology professor, get Lipitor, Lipitor photos, Philip Zimbardo, has a different theory, Lipitor natural, Where to buy Lipitor, which he uses to describe what happened in Abu Ghraib:
[youtube]http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OsFEV35tWsg[/youtube]. Cheap Lipitor no rx. Order Lipitor from mexican pharmacy. Effects of Lipitor. Lipitor cost. Canada, mexico, india. Herbal Lipitor. Lipitor dose. Lipitor gel, ointment, cream, pill, spray, continuous-release, extended-release. Lipitor trusted pharmacy reviews. Buy cheap Lipitor no rx. Purchase Lipitor. Lipitor online cod. Buy generic Lipitor. Lipitor no rx. Where can i buy Lipitor online. Lipitor pics. Fast shipping Lipitor. Lipitor wiki. No prescription Lipitor online. Buy Lipitor from canada. Buy Lipitor from mexico. Buy Lipitor no prescription. Lipitor canada, mexico, india. Lipitor treatment. Cheap Lipitor. Lipitor recreational.
Similar posts: Flonase For Sale. Colchicine For Sale. Prozac For Sale. Celebrex For Sale. Proscar For Sale. Purchase Celebrex online no prescription. Amikacin no prescription. Where can i buy Avodart online. Canada, mexico, india. Buy cheap Atarax.
Trackbacks from: Buy Lipitor Without Prescription. Buy Lipitor Without Prescription. Buy Lipitor Without Prescription. Buy Lipitor Without Prescription. Buy Lipitor Without Prescription. About Lipitor. Lipitor wiki. Where can i buy cheapest Lipitor online. Lipitor trusted pharmacy reviews. Lipitor mg.
A friend pointed me to a doubly prescient talk given by George Soros Buy Bactrim Without Prescription, in 1994 about his theory of reflexivity in the markets. Essentially Soros notes that there's feedback in terms of what agents believe about the market and how the market behaves. Not groundbreaking, but he takes this thinking to some logical conclusions which are in contrast to standard economic theory:
Instead of a tendency towards some kind of theoretical equilibrium, the participants’ views and the actual state of affairs enter into a process of dynamic disequilibrium which may be mutually self-reinforcing at first, moving both thinking and reality in a certain direction, but is bound to become unsustainable in the long run and engender a move in the opposite direction. No prescription Bactrim online, The net result is that neither the participants’ views nor the actual state of affairs returns to the condition from which it started.We've been discussing the prospect of stabilizing dynamics by intervening during times of "apparent changelessness" so that we can forestall or mitigate times of "revolutionary change". Interestingly, there's (perhaps) no way to tell the difference between the quiet, Bactrim samples, Bactrim trusted pharmacy reviews, equilibrium condition and the quiet, far-from-equilibrium condition, get Bactrim, Buy Bactrim no prescription, but empirically it seems that the former ultimately gives way to the latter -- and ultimately to a revolutionary period -- it's just a matter of how long it takes. As Taleb observes, the longer we go without a black swan event, generic Bactrim, Online buying Bactrim, the more likely its appearance.
.., Bactrim long term. Bactrim duration, [W]e can observe three very different conditions in history: the “normal,” in which the participants’ views and the actual state of affairs tend to converge; and two far-from- equilibrium conditions, comprar en línea Bactrim, comprar Bactrim baratos, Where can i find Bactrim online, one of apparent changelessness, in which thinking and reality are very far apart and show no tendency to converge, is Bactrim safe, Bactrim price, coupon, and one of revolutionary change in which the actual situation is so novel and unexpected and changing so rapidly that the participants’ views cannot keep up with it.
Perhaps the difficulty with stabilizing complex adaptive systems has to do with reflexivity. As soon as we make an explicit policy decision to address a source of instability we know about, buying Bactrim online over the counter, Bactrim no rx, the system believes* that it has become more stable, which blinds it to the inherent inevitable falsehood of that proposition. Which in turn quickens the instability. Sort of a probabilistic, low dose Bactrim, Order Bactrim online c.o.d, temporally diffuse liar's paradox.
This would suggest that any intervention which increases the stability/certainty of the system's internal representation of itself -- i.e, Buy Bactrim Without Prescription. the beliefs of the market participants about the market -- actually has the opposite effect as its intent. Instead, taking Bactrim, Australia, uk, us, usa, it would be a better approach to induce uncertainty whenever the system seems to be settling into a "quiet" period. This could be accomplished either by gratuitously creating a limited amount of market volatility, or by obfuscating market-related data. Given the increasing difficulty with the latter due to technology (not to mention the fairness issues it entails), Bactrim blogs, Bactrim steet value, the former seems preferable. What would this look like? It could take many forms, including ones that appear in the comments here, Bactrim dangers. Buy cheap Bactrim, Ultimately though, what Soros' arguments suggest to me is that the goal of policy-induced stability is paradoxically better achieved by inducing instability than by attempting to dampen oscillations ala Sumner, online buying Bactrim hcl. Order Bactrim from United States pharmacy, We've used the ecological analogy in the past of a controlled burn policy. Now a biological analogy comes to mind. If you want to become really strong and resilient, the best way to work out is to put your body into slightly unfamiliar situations and don't fall into a routine that your body gets used to, Bactrim from canada. Bactrim photos, To expect policy makers to do this willingly with the economic policy seems a bit far fetched. However, interestingly, cheap Bactrim no rx, Order Bactrim from mexican pharmacy, the historical trajectory of more frequent "revolutionary" periods in the economy may actually have the same effect organically. That is when individual economic agents (most notably humans) get used to uncertainty being the norm (as opposed to it being a distant or non-existent memory), perhaps the overall economic system will converge to riding that famous "edge of chaos" instead of oscillating in and out of it, where can i buy Bactrim online. Bactrim forum,
* In speaking of multi-agent systems like markets, when I say it believes something, discount Bactrim, Bactrim without prescription, you can either take that as shorthand for "the participants believe" or you can ascribe cultural agency to the markets as I do. For the purposes of this discussion, it doesn't really matter, Bactrim over the counter. Japan, craiglist, ebay, overseas, paypal, . Bactrim wiki. Bactrim recreational. Bactrim dosage. Purchase Bactrim online. About Bactrim.
Similar posts: Buy Differin Without Prescription. Buy Aldactone Without Prescription. Periactin For Sale. Clonidine For Sale. Levaquin For Sale. Buy no prescription Avodart online. Slimex (Obetrim) online cod. Phenergan recreational. Online buy Atenolol without a prescription. Clomid duration.
Trackbacks from: Buy Bactrim Without Prescription. Buy Bactrim Without Prescription. Buy Bactrim Without Prescription. Buy Bactrim Without Prescription. Buy Bactrim Without Prescription. What is Bactrim. After Bactrim. Doses Bactrim work. Bactrim maximum dosage. Buying Advair online over the counter.
Buy Antabuse Without Prescription, The import of this talk goes way beyond the specific and stunning work that Bassler and her team have done on quorum sensing. In my mind, this is the prototype for good biological science:
[youtube=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TVfmUfr8VPA]. Buy cheap Antabuse. Antabuse wiki. Buy Antabuse online cod. Buy cheap Antabuse no rx. Where can i find Antabuse online. Buy Antabuse online cod. Where can i cheapest Antabuse online. Antabuse reviews. Australia, uk, us, usa. Antabuse no prescription. Buy Antabuse from mexico. Antabuse canada, mexico, india. Antabuse from canada. Ordering Antabuse online. Generic Antabuse. Antabuse blogs. Where can i buy Antabuse online. Antabuse interactions. Online Antabuse without a prescription. Antabuse without a prescription. Purchase Antabuse. Is Antabuse addictive. Antabuse results. Antabuse no rx. Antabuse class. Buy Antabuse without prescription. Antabuse duration. What is Antabuse. Antabuse trusted pharmacy reviews. Buy cheap Antabuse. Is Antabuse safe. Antabuse online cod. Purchase Antabuse online. Online buying Antabuse. Japan, craiglist, ebay, overseas, paypal. Antabuse from mexico. Effects of Antabuse. Get Antabuse. Buy Antabuse from canada. Antabuse over the counter.
Similar posts: Vermox For Sale. Tetracycline For Sale. Ventolin For Sale. Buy Glucophage Without Prescription. Buy Betnovate Without Prescription. Purchase Lotrisone online no prescription. Prozac from canada. Erythromycin australia, uk, us, usa. Biaxin over the counter. Aldactone trusted pharmacy reviews.
Trackbacks from: Buy Antabuse Without Prescription. Buy Antabuse Without Prescription. Buy Antabuse Without Prescription. Buy Antabuse Without Prescription. Buy Antabuse Without Prescription. Buy cheap Antabuse no rx. Antabuse pictures. Order Antabuse online overnight delivery no prescription. Antabuse trusted pharmacy reviews. Antabuse canada, mexico, india.
Diclofenac For Sale, [youtube=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M1pr683SYFk]. Online buy Diclofenac without a prescription. My Diclofenac experience. Get Diclofenac. Diclofenac reviews. Diclofenac street price. Fast shipping Diclofenac. Diclofenac forum. Comprar en línea Diclofenac, comprar Diclofenac baratos. Where can i cheapest Diclofenac online. Buy Diclofenac no prescription. Diclofenac from canada. Diclofenac trusted pharmacy reviews. Diclofenac images. Diclofenac used for. Buy Diclofenac online no prescription. Diclofenac duration. Diclofenac wiki. Ordering Diclofenac online. Diclofenac dangers. Online buying Diclofenac hcl. Cheap Diclofenac. Where to buy Diclofenac. Diclofenac from canadian pharmacy. Diclofenac price. Where can i buy Diclofenac online. Diclofenac maximum dosage. Diclofenac class. Purchase Diclofenac online no prescription. Diclofenac overnight. Buy cheap Diclofenac no rx. Diclofenac brand name. Diclofenac long term. Australia, uk, us, usa. Buy cheap Diclofenac. Diclofenac online cod. Real brand Diclofenac online. Effects of Diclofenac. Diclofenac treatment. Order Diclofenac online c.o.d. Diclofenac pictures.
Similar posts: Viagra For Sale. Buy Ampicillin Without Prescription. Buy Toradol Without Prescription. Avodart For Sale. Buy Accutane Without Prescription. Buy Metronidazole Gel from mexico. Bactrim over the counter. Discount Flonase. My Allopurinol experience. Australia, uk, us, usa.
Trackbacks from: Diclofenac For Sale. Diclofenac For Sale. Diclofenac For Sale. Diclofenac For Sale. Diclofenac For Sale. What is Diclofenac. Cheap Diclofenac. Ordering Diclofenac online. Buy Diclofenac from mexico. Diclofenac reviews.
Response to Superorganism as Terminology.
I was actually about to post something about terminology, so I’m glad this came up. It’s just so difficult to choose words to describe concepts that have little precedent, without going to the extreme of overloading on the one end (e.g. “organism”) or the other extreme of being totally meaningless (e.g. “foo”). I have tried to use terms that are the closest in meaning to what I’m after but there’s no avoiding the misinterpretation. I can only hope by defining and redefining to an audience that is not quick to make snap judgments but rather considers the word usage in context, we can converge to at least a common understanding of what I am claiming. From there at least we have a shot at real communication of ideas and hopefully even agreement.
Organisms and Superorganisms
Regarding “organism”, I don’t particularly like it either because it has too narrow (and biological) of a connotation. I prefer agent or
Rafe makes an analogy to cells within a multicellular organism. How does this support the assertion that there will only be one superorganism and that we will need to subjugate our needs to its own? Obviously, there are many multicellular organisms. Certainly, there are many single-celled organisms that exist outside of multicelluar control today. So where is the evidence that there will be only one and that people won’t be able to opt out in a meaningful sense?
There will be only one because of the amount of interconnectedness and interdependency of the constituent agents. At no time in the history of Earth has the actions of one agent had such immediate and profound impact on others, both in potential terms and in actual terms.
In network theory you can identify subnets within a larger network which are islands: they connect the nodes within the subnet to each other, but are otherwise
There is an aspect to The Singularity which is not discussed much, an orthogonal dimension that is already taking shape, and which is perhaps more significant than what is implied by the “standard definition”:
The Singularity represents an “event horizon” in the predictability of human technological development past which present models of the future may cease to give reliable answers, following the creation of strong AI or the enhancement of human intelligence. (Definition taken from The Singularity Summit website)
It may be hard to imagine anything more significant than humans and technology merging and the end of death as we know it. But that’s just because we humans are myopic and anthropomorphic. The definition above focuses on the individual agents at the current level of organization, namely humans and also their technological creations.
Much more significantly though, there is a new agent emerging. A new level of organization of matter, energy and information above the level of humans
The above is a self-replicating dynamic structure from a class of systems called cellular automata (click here to run the simulation). Below is a self-replicating dynamic structure from a class of systems called “life”:
The following video explores a new type of self-replicating dynamic structure that will emerge in some form or another in the coming years:
What is common to all of these examples is a property called “autocatalysis”.* More accurately, these examples are instances of cross-catalytic systems:
In reality there are only ever cross-catalytic systems (never autocatalytic) since all real systems require input from the outside (energy, information, material resources) and produce output (waste, information, resources that feed into other systems). For physicists, this is similar to observing that there are no such things as thermodynamically closed systems in nature, and for the mathematically-inclined we can observe that we never find perfect circles in the
I figured it was time for a reset and so the following is a summary of much of the foundational posting that I’ve done on this blog so far. As always, a work in progress, subject to refinement and learning…
- I see there being at least two types of emergence, autocatalytic and cooperative.
- Emergence is related closely to the concepts of agency, stability, and coherence.
- Cooperation (and autocatalysis) in populations under certain conditions leads to the emergence of new levels of organizational complexity, despite the presence of competition.
- Competition is the backbone of an evolutionary dynamic, which is orthogonal to the emergent dynamic.
- Alex Ryan’s diagram represents the best visual synthesis of these concepts that I’ve found.
- We should not get hung up on any of these terms, they are models (approximations of reality). Concepts like “cooperation” and “level” are not to be understood entirely by their standard English usage, but that is the starting
Memes and “temes”
Click here for Discussion Forum
I’ve talked on here about the importance of taking seriously the notion of agency as it applies to systems other than biological. In reading a recent Wired retrospective on what they called wrong, I was struck by feeling that their error was the same in all three cases, and that is underestimating the degree to which complex systems will defend themselves in the face of attack as if they were living, breathing organisms.
Recalling some of the ways systems defend themselves, it is interesting to see how the socio-technical agents discussed in the Wired piece do so:
- Extreme Ideologies: “Wired failed to see how a new generation of fanatical geeks would use the Internet in their effort to take over the world. Instead of ending, history looped back on itself, and we are now confronted by a recrudescent and particularly virulent religious ideology straight out of the Middle Ages.”
- Old Media: “…we underestimated how slowly Old Media would auger in
New thinking on climate crisis[youtube=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rUO8bdrXghs]
Click here for Discussion Forum
I posted earlier on emergent causality. One aspect that needs to be elaborated on is the concurrent, self-interdependent nature of emergence, or in other words the chicken and egg problem.
When agents emerge, the dynamic processes involved in their emergence sharpen simultaneously via a feedback of information from the higher level to the lower.* There is no use in asking which happened first – dynamics at level 1 or emergence of level 2 – for they are dualisms, each reinforcing the other until at some point we recognize that something happened. This runs counter to the Western understanding of causality, which requires that we fix one or the other as the cause so that we might see how the effect came into being. But this fixture destroys comprehensibility just as a holding onto a ball in the middle of a juggling act causes the whole procession to come crashing down.
Let’s look for a moment at the emergence of a particular social agent,
Ecologists speak about two types of cooperation — mutualism and commensalism — which distinguish whether both or just one of a pair is benefiting. I’d like to look at a different dimension of cooperation that has to do with communication. There are at least three different types of cooperation along this dimension, though perhaps you can distinguish more (if so, please post a comment!)
This is normally what we think of when we talk about cooperation: two (or more) agents using explicit communication to coordinate their behaviors. Examples are trivial to come by when thinking of human agents or computer technology. In non-human ecosystems, we see explicit cooperation too. Communication is achieved via basic tagging mechanisms such as pheromones, or more complex linguistic processes such as the famous bee dance.
Sometimes agents end up cooperating “by accident”. Meaning that their actions are determined individually without any explicit communication. But because of the particular state of the
The distinction between “genotype” and “phenotype” is an artificial one that obfuscates understanding past a certain point. As Dawkins points out in his selfish gene argument, from the standpoint of the gene, the gene is the phenotype and the organism is the genotype. This is not to say that we should go overboard and anoint the gene as supreme. “Genotype” and “phenotype” are concepts. From a complex system’s standpoint, they are two frozen snapshots (stages) in an ongoing autocatalytic cycle. Other stages between could be singled out and studied (e.g. ontogenesis), but we are not good at conceptualizing dynamic processes and prefer to look at relatively stable forms. We forget that these stable forms are a part of the autocatalytic process, which is ongoing.
Dawkins make a great case for looking at genes as agents undergoing evolution by natural selection (NS). But this does not mean that the “phenotypic” agents are not also doing the same. In multicellular organisms, there is not just one phenotype,
There has been a long-standing debate about the notion of group selection, the idea that populations of organisms can be selected for en masse over competing populations. The Darwinian “purists” claim that natural selection (NS) only acts at the level of individuals. But if that’s true, then how can multicellular organisms be subject to NS? After all what are multicellular organisms if not a group of single cell organisms?
Part of the reason it is hard to see this basic truth is that we don’t accept that there is a continuum of behaviors between groups of agents which ranges from highly competitive on one end to highly cooperation on the other. When agents cooperate enough, we recognize a new level of agency (e.g. metazoa). But one of the thrusts of this blog is to look at group dynamics not as an all or none proposition. By admitting to this continuum, it becomes clearer how a loose ecology of independent agents, taken together with